2-butoxyethanol  C6H14O2/CH3(CH2)2CH2OCH2CH2OH 

an Organic Solvent, a Pesticide * *, a Teratogen, a Neurotoxin ... a poison  *

It can cause ALL the things that happened to 'gulf war vets w/syndrome'

Including ALS * (& CJD, too?) *

 

It has been in widespread use since 1930s (& even before)
 
The NJ hazard sheet says it has been found to cause liver cancer in animals
 
& targets the Testes (1989 version)
 
Part of the definition of what it does is that it causes Hemolytic Anemia
 
& acute hemolytic anemia in animals  (suspect autoimmune)
 
This is the anemia that doctors do not find * for those with the odd symptoms of Chronic Fatigue Immune Dysfunction Syndrome, CFS, FM  So for doctors who do not find this anemia, why should their opinion be valued on what this chemical does or does not do

For those who have CFIDS - Per definition, 'the fatigue' is unknown

Develop a good checklist of CFIDS & encourage doctors to look 'at the big picture'

'the numbers of red blood cells' ... don't show up the anemia ... the FATIGUE

Even hemoglobin may seem to be OK, but do these red blood cells utilize it?

 
LOOK at the red blood cells

This fatigue is caused by exposure to 2-butoxyethanol

www.valdezlink.com/same.htm

www.valdezlink.com/pages/jaundiceandfatigue.htm .... copy & fax or e-mail to your doctor: 
 
AUTOAGGLUTINATION
    In severe cases of immune mediated hemolytic anemia, the immune destruction of red cells is so blatant that the red cells clump together (because their antibody coatings stick together) when a drop of blood is placed on a microscope slide. Imagine a drop of blood forming not a red spot but a yellow spot with a small red clump inside it. This finding is especially for boding.
     
LEUKEMOID REACTION
    Classically, in IMHA the stimulation of the bone marrow is so strong that even the white blood cells lines (which have very little to do with this disease but which also are born and incubate in the bone marrow along side the red blood cells) are stimulated. This leads to white blood cell counts that are spectacularly high.
COOMB'S TEST (ALSO CALLED A "DIRECT ANTIBODY TEST")
This is a test designed to identify antibodies coating red blood cell surfaces.  This test is the current state of the art for the diagnosis of IMHA but, unfortunately, it is not as helpful as it might seem.  It can be erroneously positive in the presence of inflammation or infectious disease (which might lead to harmless attachment of antibody to red cell surfaces) or in the event of prior blood transfusion (ultimately transfused red cells are removed from the immune system). The Coomb's test can be erroneously negative for a number of reasons as well. If the clinical picture fits with IMHA, often the Coomb's test is skipped.
 
 

I would like doctors to suspect diabetes as a side effect of this chemical exposure.  An easy test is to check the 'retic' rate 2.5 days after flu symptoms start up.  Patricia Wilcox concluded that is the only time the retic rate will be elevated.  *

I would like to know if this chemical's effect on the kidneys is to damage the hormones necessary for wound healing ... and for production of red blood cells. *   (Nothing to do with elevated blood sugar)

"erythropoietin plays an important role in the brain's response to neuronal injury.[1] EPO is also involved in the wound healing process"  "Erythropoietin, or its alternative erythropoetin or EPO, is a glycoprotein hormone that controls erythropoiesis, or red blood cell production."

I would like to see people track their autoimmune hypothalamus issues:  changes in blood sugar, blood pressure, body temperature.  Should go high with recent exposure and over time drop below normal range ... especially close to death *

I would like to see this chemical banned some day,

because it has harmed and continues to harm many, many people
 
I would like doctors to understand that very high white blood cell counts for this group is an anemia sign - NOT an infection  *
 
I would like everyone to look for exposure to this chemical when flu symptoms show up (Not a virus)  Flu shots are hazardous and no help  *  Peggy is very sick with 'flu'  *

I would like military to look for exposure to 2-butoxyethanol or glycol butyl ethers when soldiers come down with 'the flu' as these 3 soldiers did before they died thereafter, 2005  http://www.valdezlink.com/re/3soldiersdieafterflu05.htm  Suspect exposure to this chemical IMMEDIATELY preceding flu symptoms.  Suspect cause of death was acute autoimmune hemolytic anemia with kidney and liver failures .... that high white blood cell counts was an anemia sign - Not an infection

(When doctors see high numbers of white blood cells they suspect infection ... even if they don't know exactly where)

I would like to see exposure to 2-butoxyethanol on the list of presumptive disability approval for ALL VETS

 
I WOULD like to see this chemical disclosed in home cleaning & remodeling products.  To warn people of reproductive harm and start diminishing the horrible birth defects that are now skyrocketing.... as well as many cancers and brain tumors, leukemias, especially

I would like to see an end to SIDS   * Gulf War Vets' Loss of Child *  (Look for blood in urine/ recollect all episodes of farting with diarrhea/ congestion/ nausea/ vomiting.  Then look for butyl at that time)

I would like to see an end to infertility that 2-butoxyethanol would cause.  a mom *   * New Moms

Spontaneous infertility for men is an autoimmune issue ...

I would like to stop blaming asbestos for what it doesn't do and making attorneys rich and tearing down our buildings for no good reason.

I would like to stop blaming people for their cancers and autoimmune issues like it was their own fault .... NOT TRUE ... smoking would seem logical for emphysema, but that is an autoimmune issue. *

I would like to see an end to the suicides, the depression the PTSD that 2-butoxyethanol type chemicals cause. such as Senator Gordon Smith's son, Garrett

I would like us to look at what is the SAME in each war era; not look for a different cause each time for their health damage.  Overlay the CFIDS symptoms with each set of war era service.

Birth Defects

Don't forget to put brain tumors and leukemia on the list for kids of those strongly exposed

http://www.valdezlink.com/re/thelmafriendofhelen.htm  (Robin Bush, died of leukemia age 4 ... what did her dad do?)
 
 
I consider what happened to Scott Hamilton as birth defects this chemical would cause,
even though he was adopted and his birth parents are unknown. 
 
I wish I knew what caused Onassis flu ... what he came down with
looks like what this chemical would cause 
I suspect the 'flu' that Aristotle Onassis had was a chemical poisoning
 
Maybe doctors could check with researchers in UK
and see if brain tumors * ... and breast cancers are among those to be suspect
 
I would like to see a comparison between health of Exxon Valdez Oil Spill cleanup workers
&'gulf war vets with syndrome' they should 'look alike' and they both had exposure to  2-butoxyethanol
 
I got a call an hour ago from one EVOS worker who has liver damage
I suspect he has a lot more wrong than that,
because if it was this chemical,
there would also be the hemolytic anemia that doctors can't find
 

http://www.valdezlink.com/re/myletertoama.htm

More clues:  
 
Some MSDS know not to mist this chemical
(VAPORS in eyes is a serious exposure, and most think it is INGESTION
INGESTION is not considered an exposure on some MSDS info)

This chemical damages the blood and blood forming organs
 
I think it is the number one killer in the nation, but always something else gets blamed
NEVER is it considered even a contributing factor
 
and the harm goes on and on and on
 
You will often see these signs in last hours of life, that are anemia signs:
  • Shortness of breath ... gasping for breath   (no oxygen to use & not the right type of red blood cells)
  • Rapid Heart beat  (one of the 8 main signs of hemolytic anemia in the medical dictionary)
  • 'THE CHILLS"  such as FDR had and the Pope had the night of their death

Cold to the Core

 
When my friend Norma noticed I was looking into the harmful chemical that hurt my son as a 'bioremediation' worker on the 89 oil spill cleanup,  she had no idea how much exposure had been in her family, and that some day ... sitting next to someone at church, she would be exposed second hand * and die 6 months later  http://www.valdezlink.com/re/norma2.htm
 
I think disclosing this chemical in cleaning products is a good first step,
at least it has been found to do enough harm to be required for disclosure:  which glycol butyl ether and how strong in the product.  No hiding behind 'proprietary,' either
 
Go to the GOVt study for what causes HELLP syndrome for our new moms ... and see where the butyl is.  Ask the study group,  "Do you have short term memory loss?  Headaches?
See if they have blood in urine
 
I think cancer is secondary in priority ... than the anemia that this chemical causes and that goes unnoticed
 
 
I would like to see EPA and the US Coast guard NOT use a product such as Corexit for oil spill cleanup as it is 38% 2-butoxyethanol and the one that was used most in 1989 Inipol EAP 22 is no longer manufactured
 
US Coast guard monitored the 89 bioremediation experiment  *
One Navy man called me and said he had liver issues ... lived a good life ... no reason for liver damage (Navy housed and transported workers)
 
One US Coast Guard's man told me he had horrible rapid heartbeat ... many issues; but what distressed him the most is the fact that he has zero sperm with everything else in tact ... and he will never father a child
 
I think the spraying of jet fuel over our country has caused the 2% decline in sperm each year in our men  (Only one possible exposure of MANY)
 
This man's wife asked me to look at her husband's medical records
They didn't make any sense to me until I found little to suspect this chemical ... not in 1989
 
But after a serious flu in Dec/1997 the very month he died
Leukemia of the lymph notes is part of the translation ... from what a nurse shared with me:
liver failure, etc too 

Suspect Dec 1997 exposure

 

Compare EVOS *  Robin to Gulf War Vet Donny

Robin Crochet's half sister told me that Robin died 2003 (?)

My comment on The Spill The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill ADN article - 20 years come 3-24-09

Are some of our meds harming us?  Like Ibuprofen, Accutane, Miralax?

CFIDS Health Handout

What else to do?  Those who are harmed and their doctors HAVE the PROOF

Find a doctor interested in looking at the same info in another light ... one who is humble ... open minded, and give your doctor  MORE INFORMATION ...  *  Consider gamma globulin for autoimmune platelets and autoimmune red blood cells (?)  Consider good nutrition and glyco biology for help

Consult with a hematologist?  Target Organs - even loss of eyesight & hearing

 

 

Thanks for your help

Sorry, but there is more medical science does not know about this chemical

than what they do know

Does FDR's cousin Daisy's Journal talk about a time when the 32nd President of the USA had 'flu-like' symptoms? 

It is now suspected that Pres FDR didn't have polio, but

I don't think Pres FDR should have been negotiating anything with Russia ... he had short term memory loss and difficulty concentrating?

 

 
 
On Mar 7, 2009  ... Jim wrote:
 

Margaret,

 

As much as I appreciate your enthusiasm, you've literally jumped from one illness to another yet provided absolutely no rock solid proof at all for any of those illnesses.

 

I grew up in a family where we never bought store cleaning products, granny made her own, mom made hers, and my sister made hers all from vinegar and water to alcohol and water, club soda and baking soda, only cleaning product mom or my sister ever bought was bath, laundry and dish soap.

 

No one in my family worked with near or around anything that would have used 2-butoxyethanol so with this being the situation how would this have caused or be proven to cause autism?

 

Now, having said that, we do have a lead as to what caused my nephews autism, as well as my sisters cancer. My dad, mom, sister and myself drank, bathed, washed laundry, cooked with and cleaned with the water from the wells on the El Toro Marine base which had been extremely and very heavily contaminated with TCE & PCE cleaning compounds.  That base is now one of the 133 bases on the EPA Superfund list. And to this day remains vacated land unihabited due to contamination and estimates now is that it will cost $490 million dollars to clean it up, maybe in 10 years.

 

I do know for fact that 2-butoxyethanol is a product in kerosene, is a degreaser, jet fuel additive, and was used in mixing AO chemicals for spraying, however, one statement you made was that jet fuel was sprayed and it wasn't. Had it been there would have been many jets have caught on fire.

 

I did put a call into my dad's former doctor who is a Senior Profession of Medicine at UCI medical center, and is one of the 8 top physicians in the country regarding ALS, Parkinson's and MD. He has told me point blank, there is no anecdotal evidence or scientific proof 2-butoxyethanol has anything to do with ALS, Parkinson's or MD or Alzheimers.

 

He then referred me to a Professor of Immunology at UCI, I am still awaiting his call, but I also put a call into a doctor in Boston, and one in Chicago as well to discuss this further with them.

 

I did receive a call back from an associate professor who referred me to two pieces of information, pasted below.

 

 

1)     What purpose does it serve to claim many illnesses with out proof positive?

 

2)     What purpose does it serve to inform veterans of these "illnesses" due to 2-butoxyethanol when they will run out, file a claim, and be denied as there is no proof, it's not been approved by the VA. This in turn pisses off a vet as he/she will think it's the VA as usual deny, deny until they die attitude when in fact it has nothing to do with that, it's just simply not recognized, and in order to have that done has to follow through the process of Congress and the Senate, then the President, and even then can still be challenged by the Director of the VA.

 

3)     What is your actual goal in dealing with 2-butoxyethanol?

a)     Have it banned?

b)     Noted on all household products cleaning and medical products?

 

 

The known illnesses it (2-butoxyethanol) can cause & those less likely:

a)     Soft tissue sarcoma

b)     Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

c)     Hodgkin's disease

d)     Chloracne (this is from dioxin)

e)     Porphyria cutanea tarda (in genetically susceptible individuals)

f)       Respiratory cancers (lung, larynx, trachea)  (LIMITED EVIDENCE)

g)     Prostate cancer  (LIMITED EVIDENCE)

h)     Multiple myeloma  (LIMITED EVIDENCE)

i)        PCT is a liver disorder characterized by thinning and blistering of the skin

j)       Hepatobiliary cancers (INADEQUATE EVIDENCE)

k)      Nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer (INADEQUATE EVIDENCE)

l)        Bone cancer (INADEQUATE EVIDENCE)

m)    Female reproductive cancers (breast, cervical, uterine, ovarian) (INADEQUATE EVIDENCE)

n)     Renal cancer (INADEQUATE EVIDENCE)

o)     Testicular cancer (INADEQUATE EVIDENCE)

p)     Leukemia (INADEQUATE EVIDENCE)

q)     Spontaneous abortion (INADEQUATE EVIDENCE)

r)       Birth defects (INADEQUATE EVIDENCE)

s)      Neonatal/infant death and stillbirths (INADEQUATE EVIDENCE)

t)      Low birthweight (INADEQUATE EVIDENCE)

u)     Childhood cancer in offspring (INADEQUATE EVIDENCE)

v)     Abnormal sperm parameters and infertility (INADEQUATE EVIDENCE)

w)    Cognitive and neuropsychiatric disorders (Inadequate/Insufficient Evidence to Determine)

x)      Motor/coordination dysfunction (Inadequate/Insufficient Evidence to Determine)

y)      Peripheral nervous system disorders (Inadequate/Insufficient Evidence to Determine)

z)       Metabolic and digestive disorders (diabetes, changes in liver enzymes, lipid abnormalities, ulcers) (Inadequate/Insufficient Evidence to Determine)

aa)   Immune system disorders (immune modulation and autoimmunity) (Inadequate/Insufficient Evidence to Determine)

bb)  Circulatory disorders (Inadequate/Insufficient Evidence to Determine)

cc)   Respiratory disorders (Inadequate/Insufficient Evidence to Determine)

 

Often one chemical compound may be used, but can be altered genetically by another compound added, making it something totally different, or completely harmless.  That much I do remember from college chemistry, and confirmed with an MD.

 

At any rate, if you will tell me what it is youre trying to accomplish, maybe I can point you in the right direction.

 

But I still have to stand firm on sending notification of any illness to veterans where by the can make no valid claim, only hurting vets more and more.

 

Its truly hard enough to get veterans to fight for their rights but them filing a claim to be denied makes it 10 times harder and worse.

 

Regards,

Jim

 

 

 

*************************************************************************************

DEFINITION:

 

2-Butoxyethanol is an organic solvent with the formula C6H14O2. It is a colorless liquid with a sweet, ether-like odour. It is a butyl ether of ethylene glycol, but should not be confused with it.

 

PRODUCTION:

 

In 2006, the total European production of all butyl glycol ethers amounted to 181 kilotons per annum (kt/a), approximately 50% (90 kt/a) of which was 2-butoxyethanol. World production is estimated to be 200 to 500 kt/a, of which 75% is for paints and coatings.

Main producers include:

ICI

Union Carbide

BP Chemicals

Shell Chemicals

Eastman Chemical

The Dow Chemical Company

 

USES:

The main use of 2-butoxyethanol is as a solvent in paints and surface coatings, followed by cleaning products and inks. Other products which contain 2-butoxyethanol include acrylic resin formulations, asphalt release agents, firefighting foam, leather protectors, oil spill dispersants, bowling pin and lane degreaser, and photographic strip solutions. 2-Butoxyethanol is a primary ingredient of various whiteboard cleaners, liquid soaps, cosmetics, dry cleaning solutions, lacquers, varnishes, herbicides, and latex paints. It also seems to be excellent at killing most insects and arachnids.

It is the main ingredient of many home, commercial, and industrial cleaning solutions. It is manufactured by the Eastman Kodak company under catalog # EK1364579, and Kodak Laboratory Chemicals catalog # P2270.

 

SAFETY:

It is recommended that one use precautions when working with glycol ethers such as 2-butoxyethanol. Employers are required by United States federal law to inform employees when they are working with these substances.

 

Some animal studies indicate that it produces reproductive problems, such as reduced fertility, death of embryos and birth defects. People exposed to high levels of 2-butoxyethanol for several hours have reported nose and eye irritation, headaches, vomiting and a metallic taste in their mouths. In addition to inhaling 2-butoxyethanol vapor, research has shown that skin can also absorb 2-butoxyethanol vapor from the air, making skin a major pathway of exposure to this chemical.

2-Butoxyethanol is frequently found in popular cleaning products. It is difficult for consumers to know whether their favorite cleaner contains the chemical because manufacturers are not required to list it on the label.

 

This compound is on California's list of hazardous substances, though it was removed from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency‎'s list of hazardous air pollutants in 1994.

In recent years 2-butoxyethanol has come under increased scrutiny in Canada, and Environment and Health Canada has recommended that it be added to Schedule 1 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA).

 

William Nazaroff, a professor of environmental engineering and chairman of the Energy and Resources Group at UC Berkeley, has argued that EGBE should have remained on the federal contaminants list, and concluded in a study that the use of some common household cleaning products containing EGBE could expose people to levels 12 times greater than California's one-hour guideline, especially when indoor use is considered. These products are not required to list it on the label when diluted to a certain point. The safety of the products is defended by the American Chemistry Council and the Soap and Detergent Association, industry trade groups.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT:

2-Butoxyethanol usually decomposes in the environment within a few days and has not been identified as a major environmental contaminant. It is not known to build up in any plant or animal species.

 

 

Public Health Statement for 2-Butoxyethanol and 2-Butoxyethanol Acetate

CAS# 2-Butoxyethanol 111-76-2 2-Butoxyethanol Acetate 112-07-2

 

This Public Health Statement is the summary chapter from the Toxicological Profile for 2-butoxyethanol and 2-butoxyethanol acetate. It is one in a series of Public Health Statements about hazardous substances and their health effects. A shorter version, the ToxFAQs, is also available. This information is important because this substance may harm you. The effects of exposure to any hazardous substance depend on the dose, the duration, how you are exposed, personal traits and habits, and whether other chemicals are present. For more information, call the ATSDR Information Center at 1-888-422-8737.

 

This public health statement tells you about 2-butoxyethanol and 2-butoxyethanol acetate and the effects of exposure.

 

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identifies the most serious hazardous waste sites in the nation. These sites make up the National Priorities List (NPL) and are the sites targeted for long-term federal clean-up activities. 2-Butoxyethanol has been found in at least 20 of the 1,430 current or former NPL sites. 2-Butoxyethanol acetate has not been found at any of the 1,430 current or former NPL sites. However, the total number of NPL sites evaluated is not known. As more sites are evaluated, the sites at which 2-butoxyethanol or 2-butoxyethanol acetate are found may increase. This is important because exposure to these substances may harm you and because these sites may be sources of exposure.

 

When a substance is released from a large area, such as an industrial plant, or from a container, such as a drum or bottle, it enters the environment. This release does not always lead to exposure. You are exposed to a substance only when you come in contact with it. You may be exposed by breathing, eating, or drinking the substance or by skin contact.

 

If you are exposed to 2-butoxyethanol or 2-butoxyethanol acetate, many factors determine whether you'll be harmed. These factors include the dose (how much), the duration (how long), and how you come in contact with it. You must also consider the other chemicals you're exposed to and your age, sex, diet, family traits, lifestyle, and state of health.

 

What are 2-butoxyethanol and 2-butoxyethanol acetate?

 

2-Butoxyethanol (bu-tox-zi-eth-an-ol) has many names, including ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, ethylene glycol butyl ether, ethylene glycol n-butyl ether, Butyl Cellosolve, butyl glycol, butyl Oxitol, glycol butyl ether, Dowanol EB, Gafcol EB, Poly-solv EB, and Ektasolve EB. Common abbreviations for 2-butoxyethanol include BE and EGBE. It is a clear, colorless liquid that smells somewhat like ether. Most people can begin to smell 2-butoxyethanol in air at 0.100.40 parts of 2-butoxyethanol per million parts of air (ppm). These levels are about 500 times lower than the present standard for worker exposure. 2-Butoxyethanol has been found in air, water, and soil as a contaminant. It is completely soluble in water and in most organic solvents. This means that when 2-butoxyethanol and water or 2-butoxyethanol and organic solvents are mixed, the mixtures form one layer, unlike mixing oil and water which separate into two layers. 2-Butoxyethanol is a fire hazard when exposed to heat, sparks, or open flames.

 

2-Butoxyethanol in the environment comes from some industrial activities. It is usually produced by a reaction of ethylene oxide with butyl alcohol, but it may also be made by the reaction of ethylene glycol with dibutyl sulfate. 2-Butoxyethanol is widely used as a solvent in protective surface coatings such as spray lacquers, quick-dry lacquers, enamels, varnishes, and latex paints. It is also used as an ingredient in paint thinners and strippers, varnish removers, agricultural chemicals, herbicides, silicon caulks, cutting oils, and hydraulic fluids. It has other uses in metal cleaners, fabric dyes and inks, industrial and household cleaners (as a degreaser), and dry-cleaning compounds. It is also used in liquid soaps and in cosmetics.

 

The acetate (ass-e-tate) form of this chemical is 2-butoxyethanol acetate. It is also known as ethylene glycol monobutyl ether acetate, butoxyethyl acetate, butyl glycol acetate, ethylene glycol butyl ether acetate, acetic acid 2-butoxyethyl ester, glycol monobutyl ether acetate, Butyl Cellosolve acetate, or Ektasolve EB acetate. Common abbreviations for 2-butoxyethanol acetate include BEA and EGBEA. 2-Butoxyethanol acetate has been found in air, water, and soil as a contaminant. It is a colorless liquid with a fruity odor. Most people can begin to smell 2-butoxyethanol acetate in air at 0.100.48 ppm. It is only moderately soluble in water but is soluble in most organic solvents. This means that when 2-butoxyethanol acetate and water or 2-butoxyethanol and organic solvents are mixed, the mixtures form one layer, unlike mixing oil and water which separate into two layers. 2-Butoxyethanol acetate is a fire hazard when exposed to heat, sparks, flames, or oxidizers.

2-Butoxyethanol acetate in the environment also comes from some industrial activities. It is prepared by reacting 2-butoxyethanol with acetic acid, acetic acid anhydride, or acetic acid chloride. 2-Butoxyethanol acetate is widely used as a slow-evaporating solvent for lacquers, varnishes, epoxy resins, and enamels. It is also used in polyvinyl acetate latex, and it may be used in some ink and spot remover formulations.

 

What happens to 2-butoxyethanol and 2-butoxyethanol acetate when they enter the environment?

 

2-Butoxyethanol may be released into the environment at places where it is produced or used as a solvent. Solvent-based household cleaners or building materials such as varnishes, lacquers, latex paints, and enamels may release 2-butoxyethanol into the air as they dry. Municipal landfills and hazardous waste sites can also release 2-butoxyethanol to water that is under the ground.

2-Butoxyethanol can pass into air from water and soil. In the atmosphere, 2-butoxyethanol probably exists almost entirely as a vapor. Once in the air, 2-butoxyethanol may be removed by precipitation (rain, snow, ice) or may break down to other compounds within a few days. 2-Butoxyethanol breaks down more slowly in water and soil than it does in air. It can move out of contaminated soil and move into groundwater. 2-Butoxyethanol does not build up in plants and animals.

 

2-Butoxyethanol acetate can pass into air from water and soil. It is directly released to the atmosphere by evaporation while it is being used as a solvent in paints, lacquers, thinners, inks, ink and spot removers, and resins. 2-Butoxyethanol acetate probably exists almost entirely as a vapor in outdoor air. It can be removed from the air by precipitation because it is moderately soluble in water. In air, 2-butoxyethanol acetate may also break down to other compounds within a few days. 2-Butoxyethanol acetate breaks down more slowly in water and soil than it does in air. It can move out of contaminated soil and move into groundwater. 2-Butoxyethanol acetate does not build up in plants and animals.

 

How might I be exposed to 2-butoxyethanol and 2-butoxyethanol acetate?

 

Many people are exposed to small amounts of 2-butoxyethanol and 2-butoxyethanol acetate every day. You can be exposed to these chemicals in the environment, in the workplace, and at home. Higher exposures usually occur in the workplace rather than in the environment or at home. The general population is exposed to 2-butoxyethanol and 2-butoxyethanol acetate mainly by breathing air or having skin contact with liquids, particularly household cleaners, that contain these compounds.

 

You are less likely to be exposed by eating or drinking something that contains 2-butoxyethanol. The Food and Drug Administration has regulations to control its presence as a food contaminant. However, some drinking water supplies have been shown to contain 2-butoxyethanol.

Some people have been poisoned by accidentally or intentionally drinking consumer products such as all-purpose liquid cleaners containing 2-butoxyethanol. Some people who work in silk-screening, printing, furniture production and finishing, asbestos-mastic removal, and housekeeping occupations that use materials containing 2-butoxyethanol have been exposed to this chemical. People who work in spray-painting operations, chemical production facilities, automobile repair shops, automobile manufacturing facilities, construction sites, and areas that have recently been remodeled using products that contain 2-butoxyethanol may also be exposed to this compound.

 

You are most likely to be exposed to 2-butoxyethanol acetate by inhaling the vapors and by skin contact with liquid and vapors. Industrial exposures are most likely through inhalation of vapors, although excessive contact with eyes and skin may also occur. 2-Butoxyethanol acetate is used as a solvent in latex paints, lacquers, epoxy resins, thinners, inks, stains, and varnishes, and in ink and spot removers. People who use these products at work or at home can be exposed by inhaling the vapors or by skin or eye contact. Exposure only occurs while these products are being used or while they are drying.

 

How can 2-butoxyethanol and 2-butoxyethanol acetate enter and leave my body?

 

2-Butoxyethanol and 2-butoxyethanol acetate can enter your body through your lungs when you breathe them. They can also enter your body through your stomach and intestines when you eat food or drink water that contains either one. They can enter your body through skin contact with liquid products such as paints, varnishes, ink and spot removers, and household cleaners. If your skin comes in contact with vapors of these compounds in the air, some can also enter your body through your skin. The amount of vapor that enters through your skin is much less than the amount that enters through your lungs, especially if most of your skin is covered by clothing.

 

When you are exposed to high levels of 2-butoxyethanol or 2-butoxyethanol acetate in air, some of the compound you breathe in leaves your body when you breathe out. The remainder passes through the lining of your lungs and enters your bloodstream. Both can also enter your bloodstream from your intestines if you swallow them. They can enter your bloodstream through your skin if your skin comes into contact with cleaning products containing them or with the vapors in the air. The amount of vapor that enters through your skin is much less than the amount that enters through your lungs, especially if most of your skin is covered by clothing. Once in your bloodstream, 2-butoxyethanol and 2-butoxyethanol acetate travel through your body to many organs and tissues, but they don't stay there very long. 2-Butoxyethanol and 2-butoxyethanol acetate are converted to products, called metabolites, in the liver. Scientists think that some of the effects of exposure to these chemicals are caused by metabolites. Most of the metabolites of 2-butoxyethanol and 2-butoxyethanol acetate leave the body in the urine within 2448 hours after exposure. Smaller amounts of metabolites leave the body in exhaled air and in the feces.

 

How can 2-butoxyethanol and 2-butoxyethanol acetate affect my health?

 

After exposure to 2-butoxyethanol or 2-butoxyethanol acetate, several factors determine whether harmful health effects will occur and, if they do, what the type and severity of these health effects might be. These factors include the amount of 2-butoxyethanol or 2-butoxyethanol acetate to which you are exposed and the length of time of the exposure. Other factors that must be considered include the other chemicals you're exposed to and your age, sex, diet, family traits, lifestyle, and state of health.

 

Some information about potential effects on people comes from an experiment in which men and women were exposed continuously to about 100 ppm or more of 2-butoxyethanol vapors in air for 4 or 8 hours. This level is twice as high as the occupational standard for 2-butoxyethanol. Some of these people reported irritation of the nose and eyes, headache, a metallic taste, or vomiting. None of these people had effects on blood pressure or pulse. In another experiment, people were exposed to 20 ppm of 2-butoxyethanol vapors in air for 2 hours. Lung tests (pulmonary function) and heart tests (heart rate and electrocardiogram) showed no harmful effects for any of these people. Exposure to these solvents in the workplace involves both breathing in of vapors and skin contact with the liquids and vapors. Workers are usually exposed to much higher levels than the levels normally encountered by the general population.

 

Some information on harmful effects also comes from case reports of people who swallowed large amounts of cleaning agents containing 2-butoxyethanol. These harmful effects included breathing problems, low blood pressure, lowered levels of hemoglobin (the substance in the blood that carries oxygen to organs of the body), blood in the urine, and metabolic acidosis (high levels of acid in the body). The lowered levels of hemoglobin and blood in the urine indicate effects related to hemolysis, which involves destruction of red blood cells that results in the release of hemoglobin. Some of these people fell into a coma but recovered after successful treatment in hospitals. People should keep household products containing 2-butoxyethanol out of the reach of children.

 

There are no data on whether 2-butoxyethanol or 2-butoxyethanol acetate cause reproductive effects, birth defects, or cancer in people.

 

To protect the public from the harmful effects of toxic chemicals and to find ways to treat people who have been harmed, scientists use many tests.

 

One way to see if a chemical will hurt people is to learn how the chemical is absorbed, used, and released by the body; for some chemicals, animal testing may be necessary. Animal testing may also be used to identify health effects such as cancer or birth defects. Without laboratory animals, scientists would lose a basic method to get information needed to make wise decisions to protect public health. Scientists have the responsibility to treat research animals with care and compassion. Laws today protect the welfare of research animals, and scientists must comply with strict animal care guidelines.

 

Other information on the harmful effects of 2-butoxyethanol and 2-butoxyethanol acetate comes from animal testing. The harmful effect most often reported in animals exposed to 2-butoxyethanol is destruction of red blood cells that results in the release of hemoglobin, which is known as hemolysis. Effects related to hemolysis include increased hemoglobin levels in the urine, blood in the urine, and the build-up of hemoglobin and destroyed red blood cells in organs such as the kidney, spleen, and liver. These effects have been found in monkeys, rats, mice, rabbits, and dogs after exposure to high levels of 2-butoxyethanol in air for short and intermediate periods. These effects have also been found in rats and mice that swallowed high doses of 2-butoxyethanol for short and intermediate periods, and in rats and rabbits with skin contact for short periods. 2-Butoxyethanol acetate also caused these effects in rats or rabbits that breathed, swallowed, or had skin contact with 2-butoxyethanol acetate. Some studies showed that the red blood cells of animals (rats, rabbits, and baboons) are much more likely to be destroyed than the red blood cells of people after exposure to 2-butoxyethanol.

 

Other harmful effects of 2-butoxyethanol have been seen in animals. Breathing problems occurred in rats and mice that breathed or swallowed large amounts of 2-butoxyethanol for short periods. Bloody or reddened stomach or intestines, probably related to hemolysis, were seen in rats that swallowed very high doses of 2-butoxyethanol and in rabbits that had skin contact with very large amounts. Harmful effects on the liver and kidney were seen in some animals and may be related to hemolysis. 2-Butoxyethanol is also irritating to the skin and eyes of animals, as it is in people.

2-Butoxyethanol and 2-butoxyethanol acetate do not seem to have effects on the immune system of animals. Like many solvents, 2-butoxyethanol causes nervous system effects in animals. Some rats, dogs, and rabbits developed physical weakness and unsteadiness after exposure to very high levels of 2-butoxyethanol in air for short periods. Some rats and mice also became sluggish, drowsy, or prostrate after swallowing very large doses of 2-butoxyethanol for short periods. Some rabbits also became inactive or prostrate, had abnormal eye movement, or had convulsions after skin contact with very large amounts of 2-butoxyethanol.

 

2-Butoxyethanol can cause reproductive effects and birth defects in animals. Some female rats and rabbits that breathed in large amounts of 2-butoxyethanol while they were pregnant delivered fewer offspring than pregnant rats or rabbits that were not exposed. Some of the offspring had underdeveloped bones. Other reproductive effects and birth defects in animals have only been observed at doses that were toxic to the adult animals. Some female rats had changes in their estrous cycles after drinking water containing 2-butoxyethanol for moderate periods of time. Some female rats and mice had vaginal bleeding and fewer offspring after swallowing large doses of 2-butoxyethanol while they were pregnant. Some of the offspring of pregnant mice that swallowed very large doses had cleft palates. Some offspring of pregnant mice that swallowed large doses of 2-butoxyethanol also weighed less.

 

2-Butoxyethanol does not seem to cause mutations. No studies were found that tested either 2-butoxyethanol or 2-butoxyethanol acetate for causing cancer in animals.

 

Is there a medical test to determine whether I have been exposed to 2-butoxyethanol and 2-butoxyethanol acetate?

 

Some tests can show whether you have been exposed to 2-butoxyethanol or 2-butoxyethanol acetate. 2-Butoxyethanol (from 2-butoxyethanol or 2-butoxyethanol acetate exposure) can be measured in blood and urine. In the body, both are converted to products called metabolites, such as 2-butoxyacetic acid. Certain metabolites of 2-butoxyethanol (2-butoxyacetic acid and others) can be measured in the urine. These tests will not necessarily be able to tell how much you have been exposed to. These tests need to be done within a day after exposure because 2-butoxyethanol and its metabolites leave your body within 2448 hours. Certain blood tests can determine if your red blood cells are damaged, but this effect is not specific for 2-butoxyethanol. Some of these tests may be available at your doctor's office, or your doctor can send blood or urine samples to laboratories that specialize in performing these tests. If workers are exposed to concentrations of 5 ppm or above, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommends that the level of 2-butoxyacetic acid in the urine be measured.

 

What recommendations has the federal government made to protect human health?

The federal government develops regulations and recommendations to protect public health. Regulations can be enforced by law. Federal agencies that develop regulations for toxic substances include the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Recommendations provide valuable guidelines to protect public health but cannot be enforced by law. Federal organizations that develop recommendations for toxic substances include the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).

 

Regulations and recommendations can be expressed in not-to-exceed levels in air, water, soil, or food that are usually based on levels that affect animals; then they are adjusted to help protect people. Sometimes these not-to-exceed levels differ among federal organizations because of different exposure times (an 8-hour workday or a 24-hour day), the use of different animal studies, or other factors.

 

Recommendations and regulations are also periodically updated as more information becomes available. For the most current information, check with the federal agency or organization that provides it. Some regulations and recommendations for 2-butoxyethanol include the following:

OSHA requires employers of workers who are occupationally exposed to 2-butoxyethanol to institute engineering controls and work practices to reduce and maintain employee exposure at or below the permissible exposure limit (PEL). The PEL for 2-butoxyethanol is 50 ppm. This regulation means that the workroom air should not contain no more than an average of 50 ppm of 2-butoxyethanol over an 8-hour working shift of a 40-hour work week. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has recommended an average concentration limit value of 25 ppm for occupational exposure (8-hour workday and a 40-hour workweek) to 2-butoxyethanol. The recommended exposure limit (REL) for occupational exposure by NIOSH is 5 ppm for both 2-butoxyethanol and 2-butoxyethanol acetate. This recommendation means that the workroom air should contain no more than an average of 5 ppm of 2-butoxyethanol or 2-butoxyethanol acetate for up to a 10-hour working shift of a 40 hour workweek. OSHA recommends that workers who may be exposed to 2-butoxyethanol should wear personal protective equipment such as gloves, coveralls, and goggles to protect against exposure to the skin and eyes.

 

Both 2-butoxyethanol and 2-butoxyethanol acetate are regulated under the Clean Air Act, including the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants.

 

Where can I get more information?

 

If you have any more questions or concerns, please contact your community or state health or environmental quality department or:

 

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Division of Toxicology
1600 Clifton Road NE, Mailstop F-32
Atlanta, GA 30333

 

Information line and technical assistance:

Phone: 888-422-8737
FAX: (770)-488-4178

 

ATSDR can also tell you the location of occupational and environmental health clinics. These clinics specialize in recognizing, evaluating, and treating illnesses resulting from exposure to hazardous substances.

 

To order toxicological profiles, contact:

National Technical Information Service
5285 Port Royal Road
Springfield, VA 22161
Phone: 800-553-6847 or 703-605-6000

 

References

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1998. Toxicological Profile for 2-butoxyethanol and 2-butoxyethanol acetate. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ADVERSE HEALTH  EFFECTS

for the Vietnam Veteran

TABLE 1-1 Summary of Findings in Occupational, Environmental, and Veterans Studies Regarding the Association Between Specific Health Problems and Exposure to Herbicides

Sufficient Evidence of an Association

Evidence is sufficient to conclude that there is a positive association. That is, a positive association has been observed between herbicides and the outcome in studies in which chance, bias, and confounding could be ruled out with reasonable confidence. For example, if several small studies that are free from bias and confounding show an association that is consistent in magnitude and direction, there may be sufficient evidence for an association. There is sufficient evidence of an association between exposure to herbicides and the following health outcomes:

Soft tissue sarcoma *

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

Hodgkin's disease

Chloracne (this is from dioxin)

Porphyria cutanea tarda (in genetically susceptible individuals)

 

Limited/Suggestive Evidence of an Association

Evidence is suggestive of an association between herbicides and the outcome but is limited because chance, bias, and confounding could not be ruled out with confidence. For example, at least one high-quality study shows a positive association, but the results of other studies are inconsistent. There is limited/suggestive evidence of an association between exposure to herbicides and the following health outcomes:

Respiratory cancers (lung, larynx, trachea)

Prostate cancer

Multiple myeloma

The committee examined more than 230 epidemiological studies in detail on a range of health problems and their possible association with herbicides. It found sufficient evidence of a statistical association between exposure to herbicides or dioxin and soft tissue sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and Hodgkin's disease. The committee also found sufficient evidence of an association between herbicides or dioxin and chloracne and PCT

  • Chloracne is a specific acne-like skin disorder; 
  • PCT is a liver disorder characterized by thinning and blistering of the skin

Indequate/Insufficient Evidence to Determine Whether an Association Exists

The available studies are of insufficient quality, consistency, or statistical power to permit a conclusion regarding the presence or absence of an association. For example, studies fail to control for confounding, have inadequate exposure assessment, or fail to address latency. There is inadequate or insufficient evidence to determine whether an association exists between exposure to herbicides and the following health outcomes:

Hepatobiliary cancers

Nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer

Bone cancer

Female reproductive cancers (breast, cervical, uterine, ovarian)

Renal cancer

Testicular cancer

Leukemia

Spontaneous abortion

Birth defects

Neonatal/infant death and stillbirths

Low birthweight

Childhood cancer in offspring

Abnormal sperm parameters and infertility  

 

Inadequate/Insufficient Evidence to Determine Whether an Association Exists

Cognitive and neuropsychiatric disorders
Motor/coordination dysfunction

Peripheral nervous system disorders

Metabolic and digestive disorders (diabetes, changes in liver enzymes, lipid abnormalities, ulcers)

Immune system disorders (immune modulation and autoimmunity)

Circulatory disorders

Respiratory disorders

 

Limited/Suggestive Evidence of No Association

 

Several adequate studies, covering the full range of levels of exposure that human beings are known to encounter, are mutually consistent in not showing a positive association between exposure to herbicides and the outcome at any level of exposure. A conclusion of 'no association' is inevitably limited to the conditions, level of exposure, and length of observation covered by the available studies. In addition, the possibility of a very small elevation in risk at the levels of exposure studied can never be excluded. There is limited/suggestive evidence of no association between exposure to herbicides and the following health outcomes:

Skin cancer

Gastrointestinal tumors (stomach cancer, pancreatic cancer, colon cancer, rectal cancer)

Bladder cancer

Brain tumors  not that rare

NOTE: 'Herbicides' refers to the major herbicides used in Vietnam: 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid); 2,4,5-T (2,4,5-tricbIorophenoxyacetic acid) and its contaminant TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin); cacodylic acid; and picloram. The evidence regarding association is drawn from occupational and other studies in which subjects were exposed to a variety of herbicides and herbicide components.

Source:  http://www.landscaper.net/agent.htm page bottom

* We know that this may be what Dioxin does by itself, per a contemporary leader in the Baltics who was given 6,000 times the normal amount of dioxin.  The other?  .... more likely the herbicide or the 2-butoxyethanol in the kerosene - Used to help the 'dioxin mix' adhere to the foliage    2-26-05 comment

 

 

Summary

If Dioxin was the 'fall guy' for the Vietnam vets' harm, 

and DU, vaccinations and Saran Gas were the 'fall guy' for the first Gulf War, (04 looking for a neurotoxin)

 

at what 2-butoxyethanol would do

is it still a 'match?' *

3-6-05

...

[Message clipped]  

 

Copyright 2002 - 2009 Margaret Diann Hursh

except for any previously copyrighted material, if any