calcium: an element that is essential to life. Besides being the major constituent of bone it is a messenger ion that regulates cell membrane permeability and is essential for muscle contraction
endocrine: This term applies to organs whose function is to secrete active biochemicals into the blood circulation that effects other distant organs. Usually there is a feed-back system that turns the secreting off when the desired effect has occurred.
erythrocytosis: an increase in the number of red cells in the blood, esp. in response to a stimulus such as anemia
extramedullary hematopoiesis: red blood cell production outside the vertebrae. Red blood cells are derived from the stem cells in the bone marrow throughout the body. When individuals become severely anemic, there is not enough space in the ctive bone marrow to produce hemoglobin, and the body begins to make blood outside the bone marrow: in the spleen, liver, and sometimes outside the vertebrae, which can compress the spinal cord, leading to paralysis (Consider)
erythorpoiesis:production of red blood cells
hemochromatosis: A disorder of iron metabolism characterized by excessive absorption of ingested iron, saturation of iron-binding protein, and deposition of hemosiderin in tissue, particularly in the liver, pancreas, and skin; cirrhosis of the liver, diabetes (bronze diabetes), bronze pigmentation of the skin, and eventual heart failure may occur.
hemolysis: alteration, dissoultion, or destruction of red blood cells in such a manner that hemoglobin is liberated. The spleen normally filters the blood and removes abnormal red blood cells. If most cells are normal, the amount of hemoglobin released is easily metabolized by the liver and recycled by the body. If there are large numbers of abnormal red cells, the liver metabolizes the hemoglobin to bilirubin in quantities too great to be quickly recycled and jaundice results.
Hemosiderin is a molecule the body produces to sequester excess iron in a form that is inert. Hemosiderin can be metabolized to release the iron in response to anemia.
HLA: human lymphocyte antigens; system designation for the gene products of at least four linked loci and a number of subloci on the sixth human chromosome which have a strong influence on human allotransplantation, transfusions, and certain disease associations (see antigen)
leukocytes: all the white cells including: neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils, and monocytes.
jaundice: a yellowish staining of the skin, the whites of the eyes and deeper tissues caused by an increased presence of bilirubin (bile pigments) in the plasma of the blood. This can be a result of excessive breakdown of red blood cells or liver disease such as hepatitis (also called icterus).
leukocytosis: any condition in which the number of leukocytes or white cells in the circulating blood is abnormally high; a white cell count of 10,000 or more per cubic millimeter. This is a non-specific finding. Generally when there is an increase in red cell production, the white cell count is elevated. If there are many immature red blood cells present in the circulation, the white cell count as done by a machine is elevated. A 'corrected white count' is then done manually with a microscope.
marrow: the part of the bone where the red and white cells are produced. In normal adults there is a fat in the bone marrow; in persons with anemia, the bone marrow is completely filled primarily with red blood cell precursors.
MCV: mean corpuscular volume; volume of the red blood cell. It is reduced is some anemias such as iron deficiency anemia and increased in other anemias such as vitamin B12 deficiency.
pulmonary edema: abnormal accumulation of fluid in the lungs
red cell: also erythrocyte, a red cell is the component of blood that contains hemoglobin, which transports oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues; normal life span is about 120 days
renal: relating to, involving, affecting, or located in the region of the kidneys
reticulocyte: a young red cell (erythrocyte) released by the bone marrow that contains no nucleus but has residual RNA; normally composes about 1% of circulating blood cells. The reticulocyte count is increased in hemolytic anemia.
spleen: an organ in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen that is important in immune function and in the maintenance of normal red blood cell anatomy. The spleen is the largest single immune organ in the body, playing a particularly important role in clearing some bacteria from the blood during infection. The spleen contains immune cells that activate the immune system (T cells) and produce antibodies (B cells). Red blood cells that are old or not normal in any other way are disintegrated by the spleen, releasing hemoglobin. This hemoglobin is converted to bilirubin by the liver and leads to jaundice. If the spleen is required to remove more than the usual red blood cells, it can become enlarged and increase its function, leading to increased hemolysis and jaundice. Anemias Caused By Excessive Hemolysis
stem cells: precursors to red blood cells and all types of white cells
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